In rural Kazakhstan, some women do put on headscarves, but that is typically for cultural causes, not non secular. Now, I only travelled in Astana, Almaty, Aktau and between these cities. I can’t talk about solo female travel in additional rural settings in Kazkakhstan, although I did meet individuals who had travelled throughout and completely liked the experience. When I first informed individuals of my plans to travel as a solo feminine in Kazakhstan (or extra particularly, to solo journey internationally, but we’ll just discuss Kazakhstan here!), a LOT of people have been skeptical. Sadly, the one factor that a lot of people know about the place is that it was where Borat was from. Almost all the ladies in our research had heard of a illness called HIV/AIDS.

However, it’s also important that the information is appropriate, otherwise misconceptions could result in further stigmatization. Because the women had difficulties distinguish HIV from AIDS and solely sixteen% might point out signs of HIV/AIDS, we conclude that the ladies’s knowledge in general was superficial with little understanding of the details and the character of the illness. We have been happy to find that as many as 76% answered you could not tell by looking at a person if she/he is contaminated with HIV/AIDS. The younger women, as compared with the older women, significantly extra often answered no to this query. This may be defined by the fact that these days college students obtained a lot more info at college. In basic women, with larger levels of education have been better than women with low education at accurately excluding and including transmission routes of HIV/AIDS.

Kazakhstan Feminine Black T

The women’s knowledge, nevertheless, was somewhat superficial and plenty of couldn’t specify their answers. Still, many of kazakh woman the women managed to identify sexual contacts and intravenous drug/needle sharing as major routs of transmission.

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Kazakh Woman Advice

Of the Kazakh women who answered the query about religion, 100% were Muslim. Among the Russian women who answered the query about faith, ninety three% have been Christian Orthodox.

The high degree of condom use in steady relations may be reflecting that almost all of the taking part women have been properly educated and living in a city. An average household in the cities has decrease number of youngsters than a mean household in rural villages. Even if the women in Semey seem to have poor information about routes of mother-to-baby HIV transmission, it is optimistic to see that only seven out of 226 women said they’d wish to give start to extra youngsters in the event that they have been found to be HIV optimistic.

One thing that must be communicated is that there isn’t a drugs to treatment a HIV an infection, only forty% (ninety five% CI 33–forty seven) of the women answered accurately that this was the case. This may reflect that the details about HIV/AIDS within the media focus on threat behaviour and not on potential remedy. In addition the prevalence of HIV is low in Kazakhstan and few of the ladies collaborating in our study had met or knew anyone with the infection i.e. they have by no means come throughout persons beneath therapy for HIV/AIDS. This is considerably decrease than the corresponding determine for the ladies in the Hong Kong study, the place seventy nine% (95% CI seventy three–eighty four) answered no to the statement that there are medicines out there to cure HIV/AIDS. The pregnant women in Ghana also significantly extra typically, ninety% (ninety five% CI 86–ninety three), answered no to the assertion that there are medicines/treatment obtainable to remedy HIV/AIDS.

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The knowledge amongst pregnant women in Semey was much like the knowledge among pregnant women in Aksu, northwest China. The women in Semey are not a group with generally excessive danger behaviour. Many women are conscious that intravenous drug use is a problem in Kazakhstan, but few of our responders had been in contact with drug use personally. Slightly lower than half our responders wrote that sure teams are extra usually infected with HIV/AIDS than others. Of those that specified their answers, 11% answered that people with poor immune defence methods/organisms were extra often contaminated, a false impression probably attributable to confusion with the data that HIV causes poor immune defence system.

Of the whole group seventy nine.7% (173/217) had been Muslim, 18.9% (forty one/217) Christian Orthodox and 1.four% (3/217) other. No vital affiliation was discovered between occupation and ethnic origin. When it comes to schooling among the many women we discuss with extra file 1. The first and second questions on use of condom in regular relationship respectively with casual companions were designed to assess the women’s precise follow of condom. The third question concerning accountability for condom use is a query about the women’s perspective. Of them 15 million are women and 2.5 million children beneath the age of 15 .

We collected 226 questionnaires in a consecutive pattern from a inhabitants on 520 pregnant women. We look at adjustments in informality chances using the Gomulka and Stern method. The decomposition reveals that the ‘remedy’ component explains much of the decline within the common chance of informality between 2006 and 2011 for each men and women. Another possible clarification for this finding is that the government launched post-disaster reforms designed to ease the regulatory burden. For example, the government reduced the variety of licensed actions and eased registration procedures within the late 2000s . For both men and women, an important contribution to the explained decline can be attributed to changes in average tenure.

This end result suggests that it is extra efficient to help to reduce administrative costs and enhance survival charges for brand new entrants. Evidence additionally suggests that the expansion of voluntary and first rate half-time employment, combined with the precept of equal treatment, might supply a buffer towards informality (Fagan et al. 2014). The determinants of self-employment largely overlap with causes of informality. For each women and men, informality probabilities decrease with schooling, which is consistent with excessive opportunity cost of being casual. Our finding on the impact of ethnicity is that the disaster aggravated tendencies towards being informal amongst minority ethnic teams. European men were 6.6 (5.8) percentage factors more likely to be formal through the crisis of 2009. It is, of course, attainable that Europeans possess better expertise not captured by the available variables.

The differences were significant for “shaking palms/hugging/residing in the same home”, “changing clothes with someone who has HIV/AIDS”, “sexual intercourses with condom”, and “sharing needles whereas injecting medication”. Of the 226 women, seventy six.2% (170/223) had been Kazakh, 18.four% (41/223) Russian, 2.2% (5/223) Tatar, 1.8% (four/223) German and 1.3% (3/223) others. The three women who did not reply the query about their ethnicity had been excluded after we referred our outcomes to ethnicity.

However, in comparison to the ladies within the Aksu study this result is not passable. The women within the Aksu study stated considerably more typically, 97% (ninety five% CI 95–99), that they would not have extra youngsters, as compared with eighty two% (95% CI 77–87) of the Semey women. It can also be positive that the vast majority of the ladies were prepared to not breastfeed and to take medication to forestall mother-to-child transmission. It is due to this fact of great importance that HIV positive moms get help both financially and with data so that they really can take the mandatory medication and never breastfeed. Our conclusion is, as within the study conducted in Aksu, that many of the women know that HIV is a sexually transmitted disease, but there are nonetheless people who have poor data of HIV/AIDS and other people with misconceptions about how it is unfold. These misconceptions might influence the dissemination patterns of HIV and enhance the stigmatization of the HIV optimistic, in addition to giving rise to misguided fears. It is essential to continue to boost the extent of knowledge of HIV/AIDS via campaigns within the media and at colleges.